Here are some links to papers and bodies of research that PRIMM draws on and two papers that describe our PRIMM research so far.

Sentance, S., Waite, J. and Kallia, M. (2019). Teachers’ experiences of using PRIMM  to teach programming in school The 50th ACM Technical Symposium on Computing Science Education: SIGCSE 2019, Minnesota.

Sentance, S., Waite, J., & Kallia, M. (2019). Teaching computer programming with PRIMM: a sociocultural perspective. Computer Science Education29(2-3), 136-176.

Sentance, S & Waite, J 2017, PRIMM: Exploring pedagogical approaches for teaching text-based programming in school. in Proceedings of the 12th Workshop in Primary and Secondary Computing Education: WIPSCE ’17. Nijmegen. DOI: 10.475/123\_4

Background research (ie our favourite bits of research and not by any means complete)

Block Model

  • Schulte, C., 2008. Block model: An educational model of program comprehension as a tool for a scholarly approach to teaching, in: Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Computing Education Research, New York, NY, USA: ACM, ICER ’08,
  • Schulte, C., Clear, T., Taherkhani, A., Busjahn, T., and Paterson, J.H., 2010. An introduction to program comprehension for computer science educators, in: Proceedings of the 2010 ITiCSE Working Group Reports, New York, NY, USA: ACM, ITiCSE-WGR ’10.
  • Levels of Abstraction
    Armoni, M., 2013. On teaching abstraction in computer science to novices., Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 32 (3), 265-284
  • Cutts, Q., Esper, S., Fecho, M., Foster, S.R., and Simon, B., 2012. The abstraction transition taxonomy: Developing desired learning outcomes through the lens of situated cognition,in: Proceedings of the Ninth Annual International Conference on International Computing Education Research, New York, NY, USA: ACM, ICER ’12, .
  • Tracing and reading code
    Busjahn, T. and Schulte, C., 2013. The use of code reading in teaching programming, in: Proceedings of the 13th Koli Calling International Conference on Computing Education
  • Lister, R., Adams, E.S., Fitzgerald, S., Fone, W., Hamer, J., Lindholm, M., McCartney, R., Mostrom, J.E., Sanders, K., Seppala, O., et al., 2004. A multi-national study of reading and tracing skills in novice programmers, in: ACM SIGCSE Bulletin, ACM, vol. 36, 119{150.
  • Lister, R., Fidge, C., and Teague, D., 2009. Further evidence of a relationship between explaining, tracing and writing skills in introductory programming, in: Proceedings of the 14th Annual ACM SIGCSE Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education, New York, NY, USA: ACM, ITiCSE ’09,


  • Lee, I., Martin, F., Denner, J., Coulter, B., Allan, W., Erickson, J., Malyn-Smith, J., and Werner, L., 2011. Computational thinking for youth in practice, ACM Inroads, 2 (1), 32.

If you like research, read a summary of computing research around pedagogy by Jane Waite carried out for the Royal Society After the Reboot report